The following notes are for the closely related M. cerifera. It is assumed that they also apply to this species[K]. The root bark is astringent, emetic (in large doses), sternutatory, stimulant and tonic[4, 21, 46, 165, 213]. It is harvested in the autumn, thoroughly dried then powdered and kept in a dark place in an airtight container[4]. It is used internally in the treatment of diarrhoea, jaundice, fevers, colds, influenza, catarrh, excessive menstruation, vaginal discharge etc[4, 238]. Externally, it is applied to indolent ulcers, sore throats, sores, itching skin conditions, dandruff etc[4, 238]. The wax is astringent and slightly narcotic[4]. It is regarded as a sure cure for dysentery and is also used to treat internal ulcers[4]. A tea made from the leaves is used in the treatment of fevers and externally as a wash for itchy skin[222].