Eyebright has a long history of herbal use in the treatment of eye problems and is still in current herbal use[4]. It is important that only the correct forms of eyebright, with glandular hairs on the calyx, are used, since other forms do not possess medicinal virtues[268]. Eyebright tightens the mucous membranes of the eye and appears to relieve the inflammation of conjunctivitis and blepharitis[254]. Its ability to counter catarrh means that it is often used for infectious and allergic conditions affecting the eyes, middle ear, sinuses and nasal passages[254]. The whole plant is anti-inflammatory, astringent, digestive, ophthalmic and slightly tonic[[4, 7, 9, 14, 165, 220]. It is taken internally in the treatment of catarrh, sinusitis, hay fever, upper respiratory tract infections etc[238]. As an ophthalmic, an infusion of the plant can be taken internally or used as an eye wash. Alternatively, the diluted juice can be dropped into the eyes[232]. Some caution should be exercised, experimentally it can induce side effects including dim vision[222]. The plant's astringency makes it inappropriate for treating dry or stuffy congestion[254]. The plant can be used externally as a poultice to aid the healing of wounds[268]. Eyebright should be harvested when in flower and can be dried for later use[238]. The dried herb is a ingredient of herbal smoking mixtures, used in the treatment of chronic bronchial colds[4]. A homeopathic remedy is made from the expressed juice of the plant[232]. It is used particularly in the treatment of eye inflammations and colds[7, 232].