Chicory has a long history of herbal use and is especially of great value for its tonic affect upon the liver and digestive tract[254]. It is little used in modern herbalism, though it is often used as part of the diet. The root and the leaves are appetizer, cholagogue, depurative, digestive, diuretic, hypoglycaemic, laxative and tonic[4, 7, 9, 13, 21, 46, 222]. The roots are more active medicinally[222]. A decoction of the root has proved to be of benefit in the treatment of jaundice, liver enlargement, gout and rheumatism[4]. A decoction of the freshly harvested plant is used for treating gravel[4]. The root can be used fresh or dried, it is best harvested in the autumn[9]. The leaves are harvested as the plant comes into flower and can also be dried for later use[9]. The root extracts have experimentally produced a slower and weaker heart rate (pulse)[222]. The plant merits research for use in heart irregularities[222]. The plant is used in Bach flower remedies - the keywords for prescribing it are 'Possessiveness', 'Self-love' and 'Self-pity'[209]. The latex in the stems is applied to warts in order to destroy them[218]. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Cichorium intybus for loss of appetite, dyspepsia (see [302] for critics of commission E).