The twigs and leaves contain 4 - 5% tannin[240]. They are astringent and vermifuge[7, 100]. The tender branches and leaves contain bio-active substances which are used to produce an oil that is quite distinct from the oil produced from the fruit. Yields of around 3% of oil are obtained[240]. This oil is used as an ointment for treating burns[214]. A high-quality medicinal oil is made from the fruit and used in the treatment of cardiac disorders, it is also said to be particularly effective when applied to the skin to heal burns, eczema and radiation injury, and is taken internally in the treatment of stomach and intestinal diseases[214]. The fruit is astringent and used as a tonic[9, 254]. The freshly-pressed juice is used in the treatment of colds, febrile conditions, exhaustion etc[9]. The fruit is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers[214]. The juice is also a component of many vitamin-rich medicaments and cosmetic preparations such as face-creams and toothpastes[9]. A decoction of the fruit has been used as a wash to treat skin irritation and eruptions[254].